(PhysOrg.com) — This week Michael Dell (CEO of Dell) gave a slide presentation that included Intel´s recently developed 80-core processor. This isn’t the first time that the 80-core chip was mentioned in a conference. Two years ago CEO of Intel, Paul Otellini, made a promise of delivering an 80-core processor within the next five years. He had also noted that the chips should be able to swap data at a terabyte a second (see video).Video: Intel tests chip design with 80-core processorThis does not mean that future designs of the x86 chip is dead. We will continue to see more and more cores with increased performance and without more power required. The trend, for Intel, is to pack more computing power into smaller machines thereby creating desktop sized supercomputers. Intel’s intention is to continue to bring out many-core processors including its upcoming Larrabee graphics chip and future server processors that may reach 32 cores. Currently, Intel´s Dunnington processor gets the prize for the most cores.© 2008 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Dell Talking About 80-Core Chip Processor (2008, November 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2008-11-dell-core-chip-processor.html Dell slide shown Tuesday at SC08 (Credit: Dell Computer)
Citation: Engineering students design a lock picking robot (2011, March 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-03-students-robot.html The first molecular keypad lock Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — Crimes are usually committed by humans. As it turns out, we are not only making crime happen on our own, but we are designing robots to help us in our extra-legal endeavors. I don’t know what the students at the Olin College of Engineering are up to in their spare time, but they have taken the time to design a robot that picks locks for them. This robot can not only pick a lock, but it can find the combination to any Masterlock lock in under two hours, without resorting to a chisel and hammer. If you have one number things will go much quicker. You won’t get to class in time, but you can do a stealthy pilfering with it, if you have at least half an hour of uninterrupted time to work with. More information: students.olin.edu/2013/jnoglow … ker/The_Project.html © 2010 PhysOrg.com The robot is surprisingly simple in its design. It all starts with a clamp that is designed to hold the lock in its place. The combination of a thumb-screw, a puller, and a solenoid-controlled grabber then proceed to yank the loop of the lock and give a shot at opening the lock. If this first step is not successful a stepper-motor will engage, turning the knob and dials in various combination’s until it finds the correct one. This hardware, combined with companion software that is known as LockCracker, will keep an eye on what works and what does not. When it finds the correct combination it will actually display the code for future use.For now the device it too big to be used by home invaders, so you will not have to deal with it in the near future. No commercial applications have been given at this time, and the device is not expected to go on sale. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Schematic view of the Opera Detector The first is by Carlo Contaldi of Imperial College London. He says that it’s likely the OPERA team failed to take gravity into their math equations and its effect on the clocks used to time the experiment. This because the degree of gravity at the two stations involved in the experiment (Gran Sasso National Laboratory in Italy and the CERN facility in Geneva) were different, thus one of the clocks would have been running slightly faster than the other, resulting in faulty timing. If this turns out to be the case, the OPERA team will most certainly be embarrassed to have overlooked such a basic problem with their study.The second is by Andrew Cohen and Sheldon Glashow, who together point out that if the neutrinos in the study were in fact traveling as fast as claimed, they should have been radiating particles as they went, leaving behind a measurable trail; this due to the energy transfer that would occur between particles moving at different speeds. And since the OPERA team didn’t observe any such trail (or at least didn’t report it) it follows that the neutrinos weren’t in fact traveling as fast as were claimed and the resultant speed measurements would have to be attributed to something else.Neither of these papers actually disproves the results found by the OPERA team of course, the first merely suggests there may be a problem with the way the measurements were taken, the second takes more of a “it can’t be true because of…” approach which only highlight the general disbelief in the physics community regarding the very possibility of anything, much less the speed of neutrinos traveling faster than the speed of light, messing with Einstein’s most basic theories. The first can be addressed rather easily by the OPERA team if it so desires, and the second, well, if the neutrinos did in fact travel faster than the speed of light and did so without leaving a trail, a lot of physics theory will have to be rethought. Though that may not necessarily be a bad thing, physics is supposed to be about finding answers to explain the natural world around us after all, even if it means going back to the drawing board now and then. (PhysOrg.com) — It’s been just two weeks since the Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus (OPERA) team released its announcement claiming that they have been measuring muon neutrinos moving faster than the speed of light, causing an uproar in the physics community. Since that time, many papers (perhaps as many as 30 to the preprint server arXiv alone) have been published seeking ways to discredit the findings. Thus far though, only two seem credible. Citation: New theories emerge to disprove OPERA faster-than-light neutrinos claim (2011, October 6) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-10-theories-emerge-opera-faster-than-light-neutrinos.html 3 Questions: Faster than light? © 2011 PhysOrg.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further
Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Because of its cuteness factor, people tend to overlook the fact that giant panda’s are in fact bears, though very few likely forget that most other bears do eat meat. A lot of it. It’s hard to overlook those really big teeth designed to tear and eat flesh. Thus, it seems rather odd that a big bear living in the wild would forgo meat, even though it is still technically a carnivore, and subsist instead almost entirely on bamboo. Yet that’s just what the giant panda does, eating some 12 kilograms of the stuff each day, a feat that would lead to starvation in most other species of bear. So, the question of how they do it has come up, and researchers in China believe they have found the answer. It’s because they have bacteria in their guts that break down some of the cellulose in bamboo for them. Fuwen Wei, and colleagues at the Institute of Zoology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, describe in their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, how they found, using DNA analysis, previously unknown types of bacteria in stool samples taken from both wild and captive giant pandas, that they believe allows the animals to get the nutrients they need from simple bamboo.The problem with bamboo is that its cell walls are made of difficult to digest cellulose fibers, which makes it rather useless for most carnivores because most can’t break it down to get at the sugars, fats and proteins that it contains. Other animals (herbivores), such as cows, are able to do it only because they have multiple processing stomachs with all sorts of special microbes to do the job. But carnivores for the most part, simply don’t have the tools necessary to get the job done. One exception, of course, is the giant panda.Wei and his team believe that some of the bacteria they’ve found in the panda stools help the bears break down that cellulose, if only a little bit. A very little bit. In a study conducted at the Washington National zoo several years ago, it was found that pandas only process something like eight percent of the cellulose in the bamboo they eat. Thus, they have to eat not just a lot, but constantly to get enough nutrition from the bamboo to survive.Also helpful for the pandas are strong jaw muscles, sharp teeth and paws that help them to grip stalks. And while all these things contribute to the ability of giant pandas to survive on such a limited diet, they clearly aren’t enough to help them overcome they problem of finding places that have enough bamboo to live on as humans continue to convert land to farm use; thus, their status as an endangered species. Old-growth forests are what giant pandas need More information: Evidence of cellulose metabolism by the giant panda gut microbiome, PNAS, Published online before print October 17, 2011, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1017956108AbstractThe giant panda genome codes for all necessary enzymes associated with a carnivorous digestive system but lacks genes for enzymes needed to digest cellulose, the principal component of their bamboo diet. It has been posited that this iconic species must therefore possess microbial symbionts capable of metabolizing cellulose, but these symbionts have remained undetected. Here we examined 5,522 prokaryotic ribosomal RNA gene sequences in wild and captive giant panda fecal samples. We found lower species richness of the panda microbiome than of mammalian microbiomes for herbivores and nonherbivorous carnivores. We detected 13 operational taxonomic units closely related to Clostridium groups I and XIVa, both of which contain taxa known to digest cellulose. Seven of these 13 operational taxonomic units were unique to pandas compared with other mammals. Metagenomic analysis using ∼37-Mbp contig sequences from gut microbes recovered putative genes coding two cellulose-digesting enzymes and one hemicellulose-digesting enzyme, cellulase, β-glucosidase, and xylan 1,4-β-xylosidase, in Clostridium group I. Comparing glycoside hydrolase profiles of pandas with those of herbivores and omnivores, we found a moderate abundance of oligosaccharide-degrading enzymes for pandas (36%), close to that for humans (37%), and the lowest abundance of cellulases and endohemicellulases (2%), which may reflect low digestibility of cellulose and hemicellulose in the panda’s unique bamboo diet. The presence of putative cellulose-digesting microbes, in combination with adaptations related to feeding, physiology, and morphology, show that giant pandas have evolved a number of traits to overcome the anatomical and physiological challenge of digesting a diet high in fibrous matter. Citation: Researchers believe giant pandas can survive on bamboo because of gut bacteria (2011, October 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-10-giant-pandas-survive-bamboo-gut.html © 2011 PhysOrg.com
More information: Specialized stem cell niche enables repetitive renewal of alligator teeth, PNAS, Published online before print May 13, 2013, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1213202110 AbstractReptiles and fish have robust regenerative powers for tooth renewal. However, extant mammals can either renew their teeth one time (diphyodont dentition) or not at all (monophyodont dentition). Humans replace their milk teeth with permanent teeth and then lose their ability for tooth renewal. Here, we study tooth renewal in a crocodilian model, the American alligator, which has well-organized teeth similar to mammals but can still undergo life-long renewal. Each alligator tooth is a complex family unit composed of the functional tooth, successional tooth, and dental lamina. Using multiple mitotic labeling, we map putative stem cells to the distal enlarged bulge of the dental lamina that contains quiescent odontogenic progenitors that can be activated during physiological exfoliation or artificial extraction. Tooth cycle initiation correlates with β-catenin activation and soluble frizzled-related protein 1 disappearance in the bulge. The dermal niche adjacent to the dermal lamina dynamically expresses neural cell adhesion molecule, tenascin-C, and other molecules. Furthermore, in development, asymmetric β-catenin localization leads to the formation of a heterochronous and complex tooth family unit configuration. Understanding how these signaling molecules interact in tooth development in this model may help us to learn how to stimulate growth of adult teeth in mammals.Press release Citation: Study of alligator dental regeneration process may lead to tooth regeneration in humans (2013, May 14) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-05-alligator-dental-regeneration-tooth-humans.html Biological tooth replacement—a step closer Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Alligator teeth are arranged in tooth family units with 3 members at each position, enabling repetitive replacement. Credit: PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1213202110 (Phys.org) —A team of researchers from the U.S., Taiwan and China analyzing tooth regeneration in alligators reports that a similar process might possibly be instigated in humans through artificial means. In their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes how they uncovered the tooth regeneration process in alligators and why it might apply to human dentistry. © 2013 Phys.org Scientists have long known that tooth regeneration occurs in alligators, but until now, most believed the process followed a schedule—like snakes shedding their skin or birds molting. This new research indicates that the process is actually an on-demand system—when a tooth is lost, a new tooth re-grows in its place. This is an exciting development because alligator tooth structure is very similar to human tooth structure.To find out what actually occurs with alligator tooth replacement, the research team used a variety of techniques (x-rays, tissue analysis, etc.) to study the tooth structure of embryonic, hatchling and three year old alligators. They found that the structure was made up of three parts: a mature tooth, an immature replacement tooth-in-waiting and tissue with stem cells in it. By extracting teeth from a juvenile they were able to watch the tooth replacement process in action. They found that upon loss of a tooth, the tooth-in-waiting began to mature and the tissue with stem cells in it formed a bulge that over time caused the development of a new tooth-in-waiting. The process in alligators is so effective, the researchers found, that all of their 80 teeth are replaced an average of 50 times over their lifetime.The researchers note that because of tooth structure similarity between humans and alligators, it might be possible one day to coax new teeth to grow to replace those that are lost. This is because other studies have shown that humans also have stem cell tissue beneath their teeth. It’s responsible for replacing baby teeth with adult teeth and in rare cases for a condition known as supernumerary teeth—where people grow extra teeth. In humans, the stem cells are believed to shut off after doing their job just once. If a way could be found to turn them back on again, the researchers suggest, it might be possible to cause new teeth to grow when old ones are lost. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
© 2015 Phys.org More information: New insights into the huddling dynamics of emperor penguins, Animal Behaviour, Volume 110, December 2015, Pages 91–98. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2015.09.019AbstractSocial thermoregulation is a cooperative strategy in which animals actively aggregate to benefit from the warmth of conspecifics in response to low ambient temperatures. Emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri, use this behaviour to ensure their survival and reproduction during the Antarctic winter. An emperor penguin colony consists of a dynamic mosaic of compact zones, the so-called huddles, included in a looser network of individuals. To maximize energy savings, birds should adjust their huddling behaviour according to environmental conditions. Here, we examined the dynamics of emperor penguin aggregations, based on photo and video records, in relation to climatic factors. Environmental temperature, wind and solar radiation were the main factors contributing to huddle formation. The analysis of individual movements showed that birds originating from loose aggregations continually joined huddles. Sometimes, a small number of birds induced a movement that propagated to the entire huddle, causing its breakup within 2 min and releasing birds, which then integrated into looser aggregations. Different parts of the colony therefore appeared to continually exchange individuals in response to environmental conditions. A likely explanation is that individuals in need of warmth join huddles, whereas individuals seeking to dissipate heat break huddles apart. The regular growth and decay of huddles operates as pulses through which birds gain, conserve or lose heat. Originally proposed to account for reducing energy expenditure, the concept of social thermoregulation appears to cover a highly dynamic phenomenon that fulfils a genuine regulatory function in emperor penguins. Male emperor penguins huddling to keep themselves and eggs laid by an absent mate warm, has been made famous by the documentary March of the Penguins—they stand, seemingly stoically against the onslaught of bitter cold and frigid wind. Their actions seemed all the more interesting when it was learned that they shift about, moving members from the outside edges towards the center to share the burden of keeping warm. Now it appears that such images may be only part of the story. In this new research effort, the researchers discovered that penguin huddles don’t last very long because the penguins actually get too hot.The team studied approximately 3000 emperor penguins living and huddling in Antarctica’s Pointe Géologie Archipelago colony over the years 2005 and 2006 and then again in 2008. In studying the video recordings they made, they discovered that huddling typically only lasted on average from twelve minutes to a few hours, and the average length of time an individual penguin spent in a huddle was just 50 minutes. They also found that temperatures inside the huddle could get hot, sometimes reaching nearly 100°F under certain conditions. What’s more, they discovered that it typically only took action by a single member to cause the huddle to disperse, and that the individual was generally one on the outside edges.Backing up their theory that it was excessive heat that caused the huddles to disperse, the team found that soon after separating, a haze of warm air was released, and some of the penguins ate some snow, apparently attempting to cool off faster.The team reports that they were surprised to discover that it was generally an outlier that instigated the breakup of huddles, but suggest that may have been because those in the center were trapped by the others around them. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Animal Behaviour (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from several institutions in France and one in Germany has found that emperor penguin huddles are more complicated than has been thought by many in the science community. In their paper published in the journal Animal Behaviour, the team describes their study of the penguins over three separate breeding seasons and what they learned by looking at video of penguin huddling. Adults with chicks. Credit: Public Domain Citation: Penguin huddling found to be more complicated than thought (2015, December 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-12-penguin-huddling-complicated-thought.html Keeping warm: Coordinated movements in a penguin huddle
It is well known that men can be great voyeurs. Voyeurism is a type of high that is common to both men and women; however the former are generally more associated with this kind of activity. Through the ages some men have been peeping toms, ogling at unclad women, through the lens of a binocular or simply chinks in doors or windows. When an undressed woman is unaware that she is being watched, it becomes an ugly infringement on ones privacy, instead of being a simple prank. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Though voyeurism has been there since the beginning of time, it has finally turned into a very sleazy sport in the new millennium, thanks to a host of gadgets like pinhole cameras or the mobile phones.The mobile phone today has taken the centre stage in this game of voyeurism. Fitted with high resolution cameras they can click pictures with life like colors and picture quality. The new generation of phones in the hand of a voyeur can create havoc in anyone’s life. A hapless girl may be clicked while in the change room or at a sea beach with absolutely no knowledge of such a dangerous prank. The internet coupled with revolution in communication technology and data transfer mediums like the infamous MMS, have the power to destroy lives at the touch of a button. Rapid data exchange between users can make a local video recording, accessible to millions. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixAn instant sensation is created, especially if it features a leading actress or even a starlet, in various stages of undress. A careless move even with a trusted boyfriend can become a reason for lifelong embarrassment.Some people claim that often when it comes to an actresses or model, this medium is manipulated by the victim for maximum publicity. Starlets with flagging careers will instantly get noticed by all the right people, in case her MMS gets leaked. She may even make the morning headlines. However in most cases the world over, it has been observed that fake videos or morphed images are the culprits, done by creative individuals who indulge in this sick sport of digital voyeurism, just to victimize and torment their favorite matinee idols.In my opinion such individuals must be given the luxury of enjoying an all expenses paid holiday, at the picture perfect 10 X 10 foot jail cell, where they may explore their creativity with the help of a stick of chalk, but within the confines of their permanent lockup …….Salloli Kumar has been a regular on the page 3 circuit for nearly a decade
Warren Buffett-led Berkshire Hathaway dropped one of the biggest hints about a possible successor to the billionaire investor, describing India-born Ajit Jain and Greg Abel as “world-leading” performers who are “better” business executives than the octogenarian.In his much-anticipated annual letter to shareholders, Buffet praised Jain, who manages the Berkshire Reinsurance Group, for the way he has grown the business over the years. While Buffet stopped short of naming his successor, company Vice Chairman Charles Munger named Jain and Abel, who heads Berkshire’s energy business, while talking about possible successors to Buffett.”But, under this Buffett-soon-leaves assumption, his successors would not be ‘of only moderate ability’. For instance, Ajit Jain and Greg Abel are proven performers who would probably be under-described as ‘world-class’. In some important ways, each is a better business executive than Buffett,” Munger said in his letter to the shareholders.
Kolkata: Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee has asked pandal-hoppers in the city to take up their venture only after there is improvement in the weather.The Chief Minister assured she has got the information that the weather condition will improve from Saturday. She inaugurated the Durga Puja at Suruchi Sangha on Friday afternoon.Banerjee said some pandals have been damaged in West Midnapore and the district administration will help the Puja organisers affected by the storm. “I feel for those whose pandals have been affected and I have instructed the administration to help the organisers,” she said. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeA video CD containing the theme songs of Suruchi Sangha, which Banerjee had composed between 2015–18, was released on Friday. Banerjee has also composed this year’s song for the club-Joy Ma Joy Durga, a duet by Indranil Sen and Lopamudra Mitra.The Chief Minister also inaugurated the community puja at Shibpur Mandirtala. She then went to the pandals of Kolahal Gosthi and Alapi Sangha.In South Kolkata, Banerjee inaugurated the Pujas at Nobo Durga 24 Pally at Chetla, Sabji Bagan, Chetla Hat Road Shanti Committee, Gopalnagar Kalyan Sangha and Sree Sangha.It may be mentioned that she had received invitation to inaugurate Pujas from more than 1,000 organisers all over Bengal.While leaving Nabanna she wished the people of Bengal a happy and peaceful Puja. In almost all the Puja pandals she urged people to maintain peace and harmony and assured that the administration is keeping a close watch to thwart any untoward incident.
Maintain your feather jewellery by keeping them in a separate storage space, and by going easy on the cleaning part, say experts.Here are some tips to protect feather jewellery. Go with the light moisture wash: Not all kind of feather jewellery can be cleaned, and those that can be washed can’t just be put under the tap. So, if you wish to clean them, hang them on the bathroom wall while you take a shower and let them enjoy the moisture bath from the shower. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfDon’t go overboard with cleaning: Ensure to do a small check after you get back home to make sure they are in proper condition. But if you want to give a proper cleaning, then do it once in a month because an overload of chemical and water treatment can also harm them. Separate storage space: The feather jewels are extremely soft and delicate and can’t be stored with their counterparts made from heavy metal pieces. They need a space that needs to be both and dust and moisture free as both the elements can bring dullness. Other than that, hanging them is the best option as they face the chances of getting tangled if kept in drawers.Light blow drying to enliven them up: If the feathers get wet, don’t panic. Grab a blow drier and blow dry them from a safe distance at a slow speed. Just don’t make the mistake of cleaning it with cloth.